AskDefine | Define adduct

Dictionary Definition

adduct n : a compound formed by an addition reaction v : draw a limb towards the body; "adduct the thigh muscle" [ant: abduct]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

Latin adductus, past participle of adducere. See adduce

Pronunciation

Verb

  1. transitive physiology To draw towards a common center or a middle line. - Thomas Huxley

Noun

  1. A compound produced by the mixing of two or more chemicals.

Extensive Definition

See also adduction, one of the anatomical terms of motion.
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components, with formation of two chemical bonds and a net reduction in bond multiplicity in at least one of the reactants. The resultant is considered a distinct molecular species. Examples include the adduct between hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate to give sodium percarbonate, and the addition of sodium bisulfite to an aldehyde to give a sulfonate.
Adducts often form between Lewis acids and Lewis bases. A good example would be the formation of adducts between the Lewis acid borane and the oxygen atom in the Lewis bases, tetrahydrofuran (THF) or diethyl ether: BH3•THF, BH3•OEt2.
Adducts are not necessarily molecular in nature. A good example from solid-state chemistry are the adducts of ethylene or carbon monoxide of CuAlCl4. The latter is a solid with an extended lattice structure. Upon formation of the adduct a new extended phase is formed in which the gas molecules are incorporated (inserted) as ligands of the copper atoms within the structure. This reaction can also be considered a reaction between a base and a Lewis acid with the copper atom in the electron-receiving and the pi-electrons of the gas molecule in the donating role.

References

adduct in German: Addukt
adduct in Spanish: Aducto
adduct in Latvian: Adukts
adduct in Polish: Addukt
adduct in Portuguese: Aduto
adduct in Russian: Аддукт
adduct in Chinese: 加合物
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